No car insurance resource would be complete without a comprehensive glossary of car insurance terms. We've compiled a list of terms and their definitions to better help you navigate the sometimes confusing world of insurance Accident - This is an unexpected sudden event that causes property damage to an automobile or bodily injury to a person. The event may be an at-fault or not-at fault and it may be report or unreported. An accident involving two vehicles may be termed a collision. Accident report form - This is the report filed by police, often called the police report, containing the important information regarding the vehicle collision. This report will include the names of all individuals involved, vehicles involved, property damaged and citations that were issued. Adjuster - This is the person who will evaluate the actual loss reported on the policy after an accident or other incident. They will make the determination on how much will be paid on the auto insurance policy by the Insurer. Agent - This is a licensed and trained individual who is authorized to sell and to service insurance policies for the auto insurance company. At Fault - This is the amount that you, the policy holder, contributed or caused the auto collision. This determines which insurance agency pays which portion of the losses. Auto Insurance Score - This is a score similar to credit score that evaluates the information in your consumer credit report. These scores are used when determining pricing for your auto insurance policy. Negative marks on your credit report can increase your auto insurance premiums. The use of this information to determine policy pricing does vary from state to state. Automobile Insurance - This is a type of insurance policy that covers and protect against losses involving automobiles. Auto Insurance policies include a wide range of coverage's depending on the policy holders needs. Liability for property damage and bodily injury, uninsured motorist, medical payments, comprehensive, and collision are some of the common coverage's offered under an auto insurance policy. Binder - This is a temporary short-term policy agreement put in place while a formal permanent policy is put into place or delivered. Bodily Injury Liability - This is the section of an insurance policy that covers the cost to anyone you may injure. It can include lost wages and medical expenses. Broker - This is a licensed individual who on your behalf sells and services various insurance policies. Claim - This is a formal notice made to your insurance company that a loss has occurred which may be covered under the terms of the auto insurance policy. Claims Adjuster - This person employed by the insurance agency will investigate and settle all claims and losses. A representative for the insurance agency to verify and ensure all parties involved with the loss, get compensated fairly and correctly. Collision - The portion of the insurance policy that covers damage to your vehicle from hitting another object. Objects can include but are not limited to; another vehicle, a building, curbs, guard rail, tree, telephone pole or fence. A deductible will apply. Your insurance company will go after the other parties insurance policy for these cost should they be at fault. Commission - This is the portion of the auto insurance policy that is paid to the insurance agent for selling and servicing the policy on behalf of the company. Comprehensive - This is a portion of the insurance policy that covers loss caused by anything other than a collision or running into another object. A deductible will apply. This includes but is not limited to vandalism, storm damage, fire, theft, etc. Covered loss - This is the damage to yourself, other people or property or your vehicle that is covered under the auto insurance policy. Declarations Page - This is the part of the insurance policy that includes the entire legal name of your insurance company, your full legal name, complete car information including vehicle identification numbers or VIN, policy information, policy number, deductible amounts. This page is usually the front page of the insurance policy. Deductible Amount - This is the portion of the auto insurance policy that is the amount the policy holder must pay up front before the Insurance Company contributes and is required to pay any benefits. This amount can be within a wide range in price and varies from approximately $100 - $1000. The larger amount you pay in a deductible the lower your normal monthly/yearly policy will cost. This is the portion of the auto insurance policy that would be applicable only to comprehensive or collision coverage. Discount - This is a reduction in the overall cost of your insurance policy. Deductions can be given for a variety of different reasons including a good driving record, grades, age, marital status, specific features and safety equipment on the automobile. Emergency Road Service - This is the part of an auto insurance policy that covers the cost of emergency services such as flat tires, keys locked in the car and towing services. Endorsement - This is any written change that is made to the auto insurance policy that is adding or removing coverage on the policy. Exclusion - This is the portion of the auto Insurance policy that includes any provision including people, places or things that are not covered under the insurance policy. First Party - This is the policyholder, the insured in an insurance policy. Gap Insurance - This is a type of auto insurance provided to people who lease or own a vehicle that is worth less than the amount of the loan. Gap auto Insurance will cover the amount between the actual cash value of the vehicle and the amount left on loan should the care be stolen or destroyed. High-Risk Driver - If you have a variety of negative marks on your insurance record including driving under the Influences, several traffic violations, etc. you may be labeled as a risk to the insurance company. This will increase your insurance policy or may make you ineligible for coverage. Insured - The policyholder (s) who are covered by the policy benefits in case of a loss or accident. Insurer - Is the Auto Insurance company who promises to pay the policy holder in case of loss or accident. Liability insurance - This part of an auto insurance policy which legally covers the damage and injuries you cause to other drivers and their vehicles when you are at fault in an accident. If you are sued and taken to court, liability coverage will apply to your legal costs that you incur. Most states will require drivers to carry some variation of liability coverage Insurance and this amount will vary state by state. Limits - This is the portion of the auto insurance policy that explains and lists the monetary limits the insurance company will pay out. In the situation you reach these limits the policy holder will be responsible for all other expenses. Medical Payments Coverage - This is the portion of an auto insurance policy that pays for medical expenses and lost wages to you and any passengers in your vehicle after an accident. It is also known as personal injury protection or PIP. Motor Vehicle Report - The motor vehicle report or MVR is a record issued by the state in which the policy holder resides in that will list the licensing status, any traffic violations, various suspensions and./ or refractions on your record. This is one of the tools used in determining the premium prices offered by the insurance agency. This is also used to determine the probability of you having a claim during your policy period. No-Fault Insurance - If you reside within a state with no-fault insurance laws and regulations, your auto insurance policy pays for your injuries no matter who caused the accident. No-fault insurance states include; Florida, Hawaii, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, Utah and Washington, DC.. Non-Renewal - This is the termination of an auto insurance policy on the given expiration date. All coverage will cease as of this date and insurer will be released of promised coverage. Personal Property Liability - This is the portion of the auto insurance policy that covers any damage or loss you cause to another person's personal property. Personal Injury Protection or PIP - This portion of an auto insurance policy pays for any lost wages or medical expenses to you and any passengers in your vehicle following an accident. PIP is also known as medical payments coverage. Premium - This is the amount charged to you monthly, yearly or any other duration agreed upon by insurance company and policy holder and paid directly to the auto insurance company. A premium is based on the type and amount of coverage you choose for your vehicle(s) and yourself. Other factors that will affect your insurance premium prices include your age, marital status, you're driving and credit report, the type of car you drive and whether you live in an urban or rural area. Premiums vary by insurance company and the location you live. Quotation - This is the amount or estimated amount the insurance will cost based on the information provided to the agent, broker or auto insurance company. Rescission.- This is the cancellation of the insurance policy dated back to its effective date. This would result in the full premium that was charged being returned. Rental Reimbursement - This is the portion of the auto insurance policy that covers the cost of an automobile rental of similar size should the covered vehicle be in repair from a reported incident. Replacement Cost - This is the amount of money it would cost to replace a lost or damaged item at it is actually new replacement value. This monetary amount would be based on a new identical item in the current local market. Salvage - This is the auto insurance policy holders property that is turned over tot eh insurance agency in a loss final settlement. Insurance companies will sell the salvage property in hopes to recoup some of its monetary loss due to the loss and settlement. Second Party - this is the actual insurance company in the auto insurance policy. Surcharge - This is the amount added to your auto insurance policy premium after a traffic violation or an accident in which you were found to be at fault. Third Party - This is another person other than the policy holder and auto insurance company who has faced a loss and may be able to collect and be compensated on behalf of the policy holder's negligence. Total Loss - This is complete destruction to the insured property of a policy holder. It has been determined that it would be a great sum of money to repair the item rather than replace the insured piece of property to its state prior to the loss. Towing Coverage - This is the portion of the auto insurance policy that covers a specified amount for towing services and related labor costs. Under insured Driver - This is the portion of an auto insurance policy which covers injuries to you caused by a driver without enough insurance to pay for the medical expenses you have incurred from the accident. This is portion of the policy can vary state by state as some states include damage to the car in this section. Uninsured Driver or Motorist - This is the portion of the auto insurance policy which covers injuries to you caused by a driver who was without liability insurance at the time of the accident. Uninsured driver or motorist coverage comes in two different sections; uninsured motorist bodily injury and uninsured motorist property damage. Uninsured motorist bodily injury coverage covers the injuries to you or any passenger in your vehicle when there is an accident with an uninsured driver. Uninsured motorist property damage coverage covers the cost for the property damage to your vehicle when there is an accident with an identified uninsured driver. Uninsured driver or motorist coverage must be offered when you purchase the required liability coverage for your vehicle. You must sign a declination waiver if you decline Uninsured driver or motorist coverage. The majority of states require drivers to carry some form of uninsured motorist coverage. Some states include damages to your car in this coverage. Vehicle Identification Number or VIN - A VIN is a 17 letter and number combination that is the identification of the specific vehicle. It will identify the make, modem and year of the automobile. This number is typically located on the driver's side window on the dash. It can also be found on the vehicles registration and title.


How can we travel through French cuisine without mentioning this fascinating dough that is puff pastry?Up until our grandmothers’ generation, making puff pastry was an essential baking skill.Nowadays, with all the available pre-made puff pastries that can be found in supermarkets, making your own puff pastry is often considered to be the realm of the domestic goddess.

When I first started cooking (when I was young and beautiful ;-), mastering the technique of puff pastry was like an mandatory rite of passage for going from simple cook to expert. Making this delicate dough used to take me at least half a day and sometimes more, with I admit, an obvious anxiety when facing this long and laborious process of turning and resting.

And then one day, I just stopped! The ready-to-roll dough has made it to my refrigerator and it saved a lot of family dinners after a hard day’s work. Whether for savory or sweet baking preparations, the pastry shop at my street corner has been my go-to place for fresh and delicious raw puff pastry.
Millefeuille is a French pastry prepared with 3 layers of puff pastry and 2 layers of pastry cream, and that is covered with icing sugar or fondant.
For puff pastry
  • 2 cups flour
  • ½ cup water
  • 1 tsp salt
  • 1 cup dry butter or margarine , or 1 cup prepared butter (⅔ cup butter + ⅓ cup flour)
  • ½ cup sugar (for the caramelization of dough when baking)
  • A little extra water and flour to adjust if needed and to roll the dough

Equipment needed
  • 1 dough cutter
  • 1 rolling pin
  • 1 brush
  • 1 small kitchen knife

For pastry cream (custard)
  • 2 cups whole milk
  • 5 egg yolks
  • 1 vanilla bean , split in half
  • 1 pinch salt
  • ⅓ cup sugar
  • ⅓ cup flour
  • ¼ cup cornstarch
  • 1 knob butter
  • 1 Tbsp rum optional

For marbling
  • 2 oz. dark chocolate (70% of higher)
  • 10 oz. white fondant
  • 2 Tbsp apricot jam or honey

Puff pastry
  1. Place the flour on a work surface and make a well in the center.
  2. Pour the water in the center and add the salt. With your fingertips, incorporate the flour via a delicate and circular movement. When the mixture has a smooth consistency while remaining liquid, bring the flour with the dough cutter back to the center. The flour will absorb the remaining liquid.
  3. Bring everything back with the dough cutter by cutting through the dough and starting again until everything is incorporated. The dough cutter will allow mixing without developing the gluten, heating the dough or making it elastic.
  4. The détrempe is soft, sticky and has no body. To the touch, it is cold which shows that it has not undergone kneading, therefore the development of gluten and elasticity is limited. Form a cross or a four-pointed star with the détrempe and keep a bump in the center.
  5. Roll each branch of the cross with the rolling pin and place the dry butter on the center bump. The détrempe and the dry butter should have more or less the same consistency.
  6. Fold each branch carefully one by one to wrap the fat. Before folding the last branch, close lightly with the rolling pin to ensure a proper sealing.
  7. Stretch the last branch so that the dough is completely wrapped (top and sides).
  8. Spread the fat inside the dough by gently and regularly tapping with the rolling pin. The fat must be distributed evenly without breaking the dough.
  9. It is essential to form the first dough well. Continue patting with the rolling pin. Little by little, the dough will take shape. This will prevent the butter from permeating the détrempe and avoid an uneven lamination.
  10. Roll without forcing especially the first 2 turns. The dough is still fragile and must not tear.
  11. Flour lightly and remove excess flour with the brush.
  12. Do not force as the butter might pierce the thin layer of détrempe. The first turns are short.
  13. Fold one end of the bottom onto itself and remove excess flour from the brush.
  14. Fold the other end over the first two. It has therefore been folded into 3 equal parts.
  15. Make sure that the 3 layers are in front of you and weld them by pressing lightly with the rolling pin on each end. The first turn is over. Roll again to start the second round. Do 6 turns total.
  16. Wrap with a plastic wrap and cool for 2 hours.
Pastry cream
  1. Bring the milk and vanilla bean to a boil.
  2. Blanch the egg yolks with the sugar in a bowl.
  3. Once the sugar and egg yolk mixture is well beaten, add the flour and cornstarch together gradually with a whisk. The mixture should be homogeneous and smooth.
  4. Add half the milk and whisk gently. The mixture should be smooth and without too many bubbles.
  5. Pour the mixture into the saucepan with the rest of the milk and simmer on low heat while whisking. When the cream is thickened, stop cooking.
  6. Dab the surface of the cream with a knob of butter to avoid the formation of a "skin" while cooling.
  7. Cover with plastic wrap and refrigerate for two hours.
Baking of puff pastry
  1. Preheat oven to 400 F.
  2. Roll the puff pastry finely.
  3. Trim the edges and moisten with water using a brush. Poke with a fork and sprinkle with caster sugar over the entire surface of the dough.
  4. Place the dough on a baking sheet and place a rack on top to slow down the rise. Bake.
  5. As soon as a golden color appears (about 10 minutes), remove the dough from the oven. Turn the dough over, moisten and sprinkle with sugar again.
  6. Put the rack back on top and bake again for a few minutes until drying and light coloration.
  7. Cut the baked crisp dough into 3 equal pieces.
  8. Place the first piece on a work surface. Spread the cream using a spatula or a pastry bag.
  9. Place the second piece of puff pastry over the cream and repeat the procedure. Finish by placing the last piece of puff pastry on top.
  10. Fill any gaps with the pastry bag and smooth out with a spatula.
  11. Fondant and chocolate garnishing
  12. Pour the white fondant into a pan. Heat and keep it warm in a bain-marie at a temperature between 98 and 102 F.
  13. Melt the chocolate and keep it, also in a bain marie.
  14. Heat the apricot jam or honey in the microwave for a few seconds.
  15. Brush the top of the millefeuille with warm jam or honey to allow the fondant to stick well.
  16. Gently pour the fondant onto the center of the surface to be covered. Smooth gently but quickly with a metal spatula.
  17. Prepare a small paper cone (or a freezer bag) and pour the melted chocolate inside.
  18. Using the cone, quickly trace parallel chocolate lines on the fondant, as regularly as possible. Do not allow time for fondant and chocolate to harden before marbling.
  19. Using a small kitchen knife, draw lines on the marbling in one direction and then in the other.
  20. If the fondant and the chocolate are not at the right temperature, the quick hardening will not allow to execute a beautiful marbling.
  21. Place the millefeuille in the fridge for 15 minutes to thoroughly harden the fondant before cutting.
Recipe Notes
Use a bread knife and cut rather quickly so as not to crush the lamination or damage the fondant.
To cut equal parts, use a ruler to measure.

Recipe Source:196flavors.com

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